What should be the Diet plan for kidney patients?
I want to know a diet plan for CKD patients.
A daily diet containing the following mineral ingredients should be strictly maintained:
Around 90% of the potassium consumed through our diet is removed by the kidney. The normal level of potassium intake is 3.5-5.0 mEq/L so anything higher than that must be avoided. But in the patients having stage 5 CKD, it becomes difficult to remove the potassium from the body as kidney loses its functions altogether. So, controlling potassium is very important. Mostly, we consume potassium through milk, yogurt; fruits like avocado, kiwis, oranges, papayas, banana, cantaloupe; Legumes – nuts; vegetables like beans, potatoes, tomatoes, spinach and fellow leafy vegetables, sweet potato and animal protein. Potassium-based salt products, winter vegetable juices and squash should also be strictly avoided.
Kidney diseases and salt are almost synonymous. Higher the salt intake, higher the risk of the CKD, high blood pressure and heart disease. Hence a large amount of sodium intake must be restricted. Canned food, pickles, smoked meat, some frozen foods, processed cheese, packed chips, junk food and crackers must also be avoided. Develop a habit of reading the labels to get to know the level of sodium in the products we are consuming. Less than 5 mg sodium per serving is sufficient to stay healthy.
The limit on protein intake is 0.75g per kilogram of one’s total body weight, except for those suffering from haemodialysis. One must consume enough protein to keep oneself healthy but not in excess. Mainly meat, fish and dairy products are the sources of protein. Edibles such as eggs, beef, cheese, bran breads, nuts and vegetable also contain a high amount of protein.
Phosphorus consumption for normal people as well as for people with CKD non-dialysis is 2.7 to 4.6 mg/dL. For CKD dialysis patients the target range is 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL. Anything more than that must be reduced. Poor maintenance of phosphorus can lead to not only total kidney failure but also to bone diseases and heart troubles. Dairy products, nuts and beans (the main sources of phosphorus) and drinks and beverages like cocoa, cold drinks and beer must be avoided.
Consumption of fluids is essential for normal people but for a patient of CKD, fluid intake must be watched. More than 48 fl oz (1.4 L) of fluids a day must be avoided. What are fluids? Edible things that are liquid at room temperature are known as fluids. e. g. soups, ice creams, Jell-O, etc. Over-consumption of such fluids can increase the level of phosphorus. Some fruits like apples, orange, grapes and vegetables like lettuce also contain a lot of water. So, avoid such fruits.
Now what must one eat with such dietary limits or restrictions? Following are some useful tips to follow:
•Vegetables like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, bean sprouts, cucumber, lettuce, asparagus, mustard greens, green beans, eggplant; white rice, corn cereals, popcorn and fish like tuna, catfish, swordfish, codfish, mahi fish should be consumed for a healthy diet.
•Use phosphorus binders such as calcium acetate (PhosLo), calcium carbonate (Caltrate and Tums) or sevalemer hydrochloride (Renagel) when necessary. But with proper prescription from your doctor.
•Never change any food pattern or your diet program without proper consultation with your doctor.
•It’s important to have routine medical checkups and keeping a track of the recent changes that occur.
•Proper medication and exercise is a must.
•Smoking and alcohol consumption must be reduced, and preferably completely avoided.
•No meals should be skipped. Avoid taking huge meals at a time and divide meals into a 4-times a day pattern.
•Lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels must be maintained and observed time to time.
•Last and most important, is keeping your mind healthy and motivated which has the greatest power to cure any disease.
Do the following:
Do not sleep for at least 2 hours after a meal. This is most important.
First 2 days
Drink 3 glasses of water before each meal. So total should be 9 glasses a day. Stop all other liquids.
For example if you take lunch at 2.00 pm, take 1 glass each at 12.30, 1.00 and 1.30 pm. Some deviations from suggested times are ok.
Do not drink water after 7 PM.
Next 2 days
Reduce water intake to 6 glasses day. 2 Glasses before each meal.
Next 2 days
Reduce water intake to 3 glasses day. 1 Glasses before each meal.
Next 2 days
Drink 1 glass of water in the entire day.
Repeat week 3 and week 4 again and again.
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